The Microscope That Uses Quantum Physics to Trace Atoms

In the late 1970s, two physicists in Switzerland set out to invent a new type of microscope using quantum physics that would allow them to do something no one had ever done before: see the individual atoms in a sheet of metal.

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Sources:
https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1986/rohrer/26221-interview-transcript-1986-4/
https://www.ibm.com/blogs/research/2015/05/ibm-scientists-use-the-stm-to-image-molecules-in-liquid/

STM tip preparation


https://books.google.se/books?id=DngHF6Qtw3MC&pg=PA281&lpg=PA281&dq=did+binnig+rohrer+use+electrochemical+etching&source=bl&ots=ZrzCf4Zh8w&sig=ACfU3U088eamN_eK8Yqgq1oG7YXri1yPMw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiDwcTo1ojnAhUi-yoKHYivB7UQ6AEwCHoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=did%20binnig%20rohrer%20use%20electrochemical%20etching&f=false
https://books.google.se/books?id=ijloadAt4BQC&pg=PA87&lpg=PA87&dq=STM+superconducting+lead+bowl&source=bl&ots=mcLIWh9gYq&sig=ACfU3U1lqQEI2kdmyNnedHnkn7VQ_4Lh3Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwidw4ruyojnAhWNposKHbm8CnYQ6AEwDXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=STM%20superconducting%20lead%20bowl&f=false

JT-STM


https://www.fkf.mpg.de/2489208/01_Precision_Laboratory
https://www.fkf.mpg.de/5191581/dok92-Mostafa_Enayat_Thesis_2014.pdf
https://cryogenicsociety.org/resources/defining_cryogenics/dilution_refrigerators/
https://books.google.at/books?id=LHtsAoUAdAAC&pg=PA14&lpg=PA14&dq=binnig+rohrer+stylus&source=bl&ots=iCzREzaJIY&sig=ACfU3U298koMo0XBw9hNX98J9r-cI5Dapw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj7iP_D-pTnAhUTWsAKHVu4DAgQ6AEwAnoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=binnig%20rohrer%20stylus&f=false
https://www.nobelprize.org/uploads/2018/06/rohrer-lecture.pdf
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/vintage_4506VV3181.html
https://books.google.at/books?id=qHafDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67&dq=stms+in+microbiology&source=bl&ots=kpTZFpZPdn&sig=ACfU3U1apUwYFQ2l7YbK6r-MVZjqPsbfNA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi17N3QlpXnAhXHZlAKHZa2D8MQ6AEwAnoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=stms%20in%20microbiology&f=false
https://phys.org/news/2018-07-closer-single-atom-storage.html
https://books.google.at/books?id=O-LM6eWUbmIC&pg=PA138&lpg=PA138&dq=motivation+of+rohrer+stm&source=bl&ots=mefO-O3LpB&sig=ACfU3U07jrSiePi3zjPILFmtxfrAbfcp3A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi4hNb__JTnAhWNiFwKHYhzAlcQ6AEwDXoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=motivation%20of%20rohrer%20stm&f=false
https://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/iss/kap_4/illustr/s4_1_1d.html
https://books.google.hr/books?hl=en&lr=&id=MtHq0mgF5WgC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=scanning+tunneling+microscopy&ots=2TGozB32Aj&sig=oeny4j_9rF_NIBljlqhD5j2Wv6Y&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=scanning%20tunneling%20microscopy&f=false
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0039602883907161
http://www.physics.purdue.edu/nanophys/lovall/fim.html

https://authors.library.caltech.edu/5456/1/hrst.mit.edu/hrs/materials/public/BR_papers/BR_paper4_(HelvPhysActa1983).htm
https://arxiv.org/ftp/cond-mat/papers/0506/0506038.pdf
http://pubsapp.acs.org/cen/coverstory/83/8348atoms.html?
https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/physics/current/postgraduate/regs/mpagswarwick/ex5/techniques/structural/tem/

Image Sources:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rohrer.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gerd_Binnig_at_the_Memorial_Symposium_for_Heinrich_Rohrer_(cropped)_2.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_microscope.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Polio_EM_PHIL_1875_lores.PNG
https://mse.engin.umich.edu/people/joannamm/projects/electrochemical-etching-of-ultrasharp-stm-tips/electrochemical-etching-of-ultrasharp-tungsten-stm-tips/the_file
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Helium_atom_QM.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Silicium-atomes.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:First_STM.jpg


https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:STM_at_the_London_Centre_for_Nanotechnology.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ESR-STM_at_QNS_in_Ewha_-_front_view.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cage_de_Faraday.jpg
https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/44087.php
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atomic_resolution_Au100.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Microscope_compound_diagram.png

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